Cytoscopy for bladder cancer
A cytoscopy can be used to carefully examine the entire bladder area. For this procedure, your doctor will likely use a cytoscope, which is a thin, lighted tube that can be inserted through the urethra and into the bladder. A small lens or video camera is attached to the tip, so that your doctor can see inside. Sterile salt water is injected through the cytoscope, which expands the bladder, making it easier to examine.
The initial cytoscopy is usually done in a doctor’s office and patients are offered local anesthesia to numb the urethra and bladder. When a more general anesthesia is needed, the cytoscopy will be done in an operating room.
Cystoscopy is most often done as an outpatient procedure. Before the procedure you will empty your bladder. Then you will be placed on an exam table. A liquid or gel local anesthetic may be used on your urethra. The average cystoscopy takes about 5 to 10 minutes.
The cystoscope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder. The cystoscope is a thin, lighted tube with lenses. Most often it is bendable, but some models are rigid. Water or saline is infused through the cystoscope into the bladder. As the fluid fills the bladder, the bladder wall is stretched so the urologist can see clearly.
WHAT IS A CYSTOSCOPE?
This is a long rigid instrument comprising a rigid telescope that is carefully inserted into urethra and advanced towards the bladder.
WHEN IS A CYSTOSCOPY NEEDED?
A cystoscopy is indicated in the following conditions:
blood in urine
a frequent and urgent need to urinate
abnormal urine test result
painful urination, chronic pelvic pain,
Blockage of urinary tract
Repeated urinary tract infection
a stone in the urinary tract, such as a kidney stone
abnormal growth in the urinary tract
HOW DO I PREPARE FOR A CYSTOSCOPY?
A detailed explanation will be given on the need for the procedure and risks of injury as is likely with any medical procedure
A pre-procedure urine test to check for infection is needed
Patients are required to sign a consent form
In most cases, patients can eat normally in the hours before the test
HOW IS A CYSTOSCOPY PERFORMED?
The patient is asked to lie on their back with knees raised and apart-lithotomy position.
The area around the urethral opening is cleaned and a local anesthetic applied so the patient will not experience pain during the procedure.
A doctor then gently inserts the tip of the cystoscope into the urethra and slowly glides it up into the bladder. An irrigating fluid is slowly instilled into the bladder through the scope to inflate the bladder for a good view of the inner wall of the bladder l.
The patient can empty the bladder as soon as the examination is over.
The procedure usually lasts from 15minutes to 45minutes.It may last longer when additional long instruments are passed through the scope to take tissue sample, treat stones, abnormal growth or resect the prostate gland
WHAT HAPPENS AFER A CYSTOSCOPY?
A mild burning sensation while urinating is common. Also patient may experience small amounts of blood in their urine. However these resolve within 24hours.
Liberal intake of fluids a few hours after procedure is helpful.
Antibiotics will be prescribed to prevent an infection.
Report to the doctor if any of the following develop a few days after procedure: Persistence of blood in stool Fever, chills and severe pains (signs of infection).